Technopark structure

At the present time, there are many many different forms of technopark structures:
science parks, technology and research parks,
innovation, innovation and technology and business innovation centers,
Technology Transfer Centre,
business incubators and technology incubators, virtual incubators,
techno and others.

Between some of these forms, there are fundamental differences associated with different functional purpose, specific organizational forms, the spectrum of tasks, while among other technology park structures is more distinct terminology, sometimes associated with the peculiarities of the development of innovation infrastructure in a particular country.

We can distinguish three main groups of technopark structures:
incubators
parks,
techno.

Consider the features, the characteristics of each of these forms and the experience of their functioning in various countries.

Incubators – a multipurpose complex, providing a variety of services to new innovative firms, which are at the stage of emergence and development.

In other words, the incubators are designed for “incubation” of new innovative enterprises, assisting them in the earliest stages of their development by providing information, consulting services, rental of premises and equipment and other services.

Incubator is usually one or more buildings. The incubation period of the company-client usually lasts from 2 to 5 years, after which the innovative firm leaves the incubator and started independent activities.

Incubator, as a form of the element of innovation infrastructure, is in constant development, the logic is in many ways helps to understand the origins and spread of incubators.

Progenitor of incubators in the field of innovation can be regarded as so-called “creative commune” of architects, designers, artists and craftsmen. These communes, as a rule, have reinvented the occupancy of the building so as to create the most conducive to creativity and communication environment. A distinctive feature of these towns are home to believe the UK is that they have a certain set of services for collective use.

All incubators, established and operating to support new innovative companies, to promote innovative entrepreneurship, can be divided into two main types. The first are those which operate as independent organizations. The second – incubators that make up the industrial park.

Recently, in connection with the development of e-business, active use of the Internet and other new information technologies in the production and management practices as separate type of virtual incubators or “incubators without walls.” These incubators help to assess the commercial potential of the innovation project, considered as a basis for creating a new company, to conduct appropriate market research, to normalize relations with the parent organization (university, research institute, etc.) on intellectual property to develop a business plan and overall business strategy; find partner organizations that serve as suppliers or consumers of innovative products, etc. Naturally, the “incubator without walls” do not provide rental firms to customers. However, the advantage of virtual form is that the establishment of such incubators compared with the traditional form involves, as a rule, with a much more modest investment.

Molchanov OP , Prof. MSU