System Technology Parks in Europe

1st place of innovation centers in the scientific and technological infrastructure

In Western countries, innovation centers play an important role in the infrastructure of science and technology. In most countries, innovation centers have been established in the mid-eighties to improve interaction between the scientific and technical sectors and markets, as well as creating new opportunities for scientific and technical activities. Innovation centers are treated as one of most important and most successful tools in the emerging interest in science and technology policy-oriented dissemination mechanisms. It focuses on the application of existing know-how and technology in the industry instead of promoting more complex studies.

While the systems of innovation centers are different in different European countries there was still a possibility of considering their place in the overall infrastructure of science and technology. (Table 1) Innovation centers occupy a position between the producers of scientific and technical products (Centers for Basic and applied research) and industry, mainly small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with up to 250 employees. This situation gives them an opportunity to play an interactive role, namely, to deliver new technology to potential users and to inform the research institutes of the needs and requirements of SMEs. Thus, the strategic course of innovation centers, based on their potential to support the innovation process, to accelerate the necessary exchange of technology (hardware) and information (software) between the various components of scientific and technological infrastructure. In addition, innovation centers also play an important role in overcoming the natural differences and barriers that will always exist between researchers and entrepreneurs.

2. Services provided by the innovation centers

The range of services provided by innovation centers of Western European countries are quite multifaceted, and begins, as a rule, with the traditional tasks, such as technology transfer and ends with more advanced services. In most cases, innovation centers have a well-defined set of services.

Transfer technologies

The introduction of new technologies and research results from scientific and technological sector in the industry is the traditional task, and often the main activity centers of innovation. There are several basic methods of technology transfer.

Assistance in business: commercial service providers on specific issues related to technology can be regarded as specialized organizations working in science and technology sector. To properly navigate among the many innovative companies such centers have developed a database, and consultants of innovation centers in turn have their own area of specialization.

Technology Diffusion: means the transfer of certain knowledge from research institutes group of SMEs with common needs for technologies (projects, multi-user).

Search technology: is the study of national and international market in order to acquire advanced technologies and commercial opportunities that may be used by companies in the region. This task is often carried out regardless of the specific requests of industry.

In addition to these direct approaches to technology transfer, innovation centers are now starting to pay more attention to the use of various indirect mechanisms for the transfer of technologies, such as business parks, technology-sharing on networks that unite us, the centers of product development (products), use of external contractors, etc. e. This means that the focus is not only technology transfer from research institutions to industry, but also promote the exchange of technology directly within the industry.