Active inclusion of an increasing number of countries in the international geographical division of labor, their ingrowth into the world economy, the realization of the basic principles of economic openness, the dominance of export specialization have led to the emergence and dissemination of such new forms of organization, as a free economic zone (SEZ). The main purpose of creating SEZs lies in a deeper inclusion of national economies into the international geographical division of labor. Other objectives – saturate the domestic market with high quality products, the introduction of the domestic production of new scientific and technological development, increasing employment, the problems of regional policy through the creation of "growth poles", etc.

Heudivitelno that the total number of free economic zones that have appeared in the world in the late 50's – early 60-ies (though some of their species emerged much earlier), then quickly began to grow. As for the specific quantitative estimates given in different sources, they differ quite strongly. Some authors believe that by the mid 90's, the total number of SEZ in the world close to a thousand, others say 1200, 2000 and even 4000. Several less divergence in the estimates of the place now occupied by the free economic zones in the world economy. It is believed that their share in world tovapoobopote increased from 8% in 1960 to 20 in 1985 and 30% in the late 90-ies. They already operate about a hundred countries, and employing them for more than 3 million people.

Inconsistency quantitative estimates is primarily due to the fact that the very concept of free economic zone or in domestic or foreign literature is absolutely clear is formulated. The most general form under the SEZ should be understood as part of the country where the government establishes a special regime of management, most favorable to foreign and domestic entrepreneurs to attract foreign and domestic investment. This mode usually provides special privileges for trade transactions (up to the abolition of export and import duties), tax credits (up to the abolition of taxation), financial incentives for the provision of utilities and other services, and administrative privileges, facilitating entry and exit procedures, business registration, etc.

Most of the free economic zones have a relatively small area and are classified as "point" objects, but among them there are quite extensive, and even very large area. One of the prerequisites of SEZ – the existence of favorable economic and geographical situation. For small, "dot", BMS is primarily a neighborhood with an international port or airport.

Certain concepts and terminology problems arise in the classification of free economic zones, the allocation of different types (species). The most common basis for the classification of SEZ are four major criteria: 1) the nature of the activity and functional purpose, 2) the degree of integration into the global and national economies, and 3) branch feature, 4) the nature of the property (they can be public, private and mixed). All this creates a fairly wide range for different kinds of interpretations: some authors believe that there are 25-30 varieties of SEZ, others are limited to 10-15 and even fewer of their types. But in any case is very important grouping of these types, combining them into several related groups.

The first group consists of commercial SEZ. This is one of the earliest (which have emerged as early as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.) Varieties of free economic zones. It includes free customs zone, trade and warehousing zones, free ports, but in the first place – free trade area (FTA), the most widespread. Free trade zones are usually established on the territory of seaports and airports or in close proximity to them. They enjoyed extraterritoriality Customs: stored and sold in these products are not subject to the usual customs control. One of the varieties of free trade zones considered and shops duty free ยป(Duty free – free of duty), has the right to free trade and have become a necessary accessory in many international airports.

The second group consists industrial production SEZ also have several varieties. FEZ the group decided to divide the export-and import-oriented. The first of them work in the foreign market, and the latter on the inside. Export processing zones is much more, so that they are in the ground and form a second group of SEZ. In contrast to the free trade zones, export processing zones are primarily intended to increase the export potential and, accordingly, its foreign exchange earnings. Some of them have emerged on the basis of transformation of free trade zones, but most create targeted export-oriented. For many of these zones is characterized by the predominance of assembly plants.

The third group consists of scientific and technological (technical, promotional), SEZ, which focus national and international design, research, scientific and manufacturing firms, also use a uniform system of tax and financial incentives. The task of SEZ is to develop and implement the domestic practice of new technologies. They have the character of innovation and research centers, scientific, research parks, technology parks, etc.

The fourth group consists of service SEZ, providing favorable conditions for those firms and agencies that specialize in providing various services, mainly financial, but also others. Among them distinguish offshoring, financial centers, providing banking, tourism and other services.

The fifth group consists of integrated BMS. They have a narrow specialization, and cover different sides of the export-import, production and innovation, making their internal stuktura most difficult. Typically, complex BMS and the size is much more than others. They can occupy the territory of the whole area, administrative area, and in some cases, a larger region.

Finally, in the sixth group may include international SEZ, which began to emerge recently. Such zones are created in the border areas of two or more countries with the participation of both private firms and the respective states. The most striking example of the international SEA can be created on the border of Russia, China and North Korea zone Tumen.

Tumen project envisages the creation of a delta. Tuman (Tumyntszyan) special economic zone of the international area of 1000 km2 with a new port city. To implement the project has already signed the intergovernmental agreement. China, this project is profitable, as it will ensure the creation of new jobs and access to the Sea of Japan. Prior to the DPRK, which is known to the closed nature of its economy, it opens the opportunity to participate in multilateral agreements. Russia because it can deepen its economic ties with ctpanami Asia-Pacific region, and based on knowledge-intensive industries and services. Great interest in this project often as Japan and the Republic of Korea. However, some factors of political and economic considerations have a deterrent effect on its implementation.

We add that in considering the classification of export and economic zones, some authors have attempted to highlight their successive generations. Usually the first generation of BMS include free trade zones to BMS second generation – the export-manufacturing zone to the third-generation BMS – Techno-innovation and service areas. There were also the first proposals for zones of the fourth generation.

Despite many similarities, free economic zones in western developed countries, developing countries and countries with economies in transition are some differences.

A large spread of such zones in Western countries derives from their active participation in international geographic division of labor and global economic ties, in various integration groupings, and from the very nature of their post-industrial economy. Not surprisingly, these countries are almost all varieties of SEZ.

In Western Europe, quantitatively dominated by free trade zone. They appeared here in the XIX century. and even earlier (free port) to the mid 90-ies of their number had increased to about 150. At first, such zones were formed mainly in marine ports in Germany (Hamburg, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Kiel, Emden, Cuxhaven), Denmark (Copenhagen), Finland (Helsinki, Turku), Greece (Piraeus, Thessaloniki). It has long been known as major FTAs in river ports and railway junctions (eg, Linz and Graz in Austria). However, the recent history of European, yes, indeed, the world's FTA began in the late 50's, and it is connected with the Irish International Airport Shannon.

Shannon Airport, located in the western part of Ireland, specializing in the refueling of aircraft, transatlantic flights. But as major airlines began to go on planes that do not require refueling, the economic situation deteriorated Shannon, and he was on the verge of closure. Then in 1959 the Government announced its intention to make the Shannon free zone of international business. This action was quite successful. Foreign capital for a short time managed to create here thousands of new jobs, eliminate unemployment and restore the area's economic well-being. Now in the area of Shannon produce electronic equipment, drilling rigs, industrial diamonds, consumer goods. Its annual exports exceeded $ 1 billion Yes, and Shannon has become a thriving city.

In addition to free trade zones in Western Europe are widely used science and technology zone, the centers of offshore business. In some countries, such as the UK, SEZs were created in the framework of regional policies aimed at lifting depressed areas. Prospects for the creation of SEZ in Western Europe is largely due to the deepening of integration processes in the European Union.

In the United States as the most widely used free trade zone. They were here began to create in the mid 30-ies to overcome the effects of the global economic crisis. Now, these regions are located in port cities and transportation hubs, has several hundred. In the 80 years in the country have begun to emerge as a zone of free enterprise, is focused on the domestic market. Widespread also received scientific and technological areas.

In Japan, a long time especially a lot of attention paid Technopolis and industrial parks, but since the early 90-ies of the Government to take measures aimed at stimulating exports and attracting foreign investment. To this end, seaports and international airports have set up a free foreign-trade zone.

In developing countries the first free economic zones have begun to emerge in the mid 60-ies. At first they were few, but then there was a real boom, so that by the end of 90-x years the total number of SEZ these countries, apparently, is not inferior to developed. Most common in Asia, Africa and Latin America have ekcpoptno-ppoizvodctvennye zones (EPZs), which usually take out almost all the agricultural products in foreign markets. Very often, these zones are enclaves in nature, forming a sort of "state within a state. This is because the business owners they serve large multinational corporations, different subsidiaries, which provide for such zones, parts and semifinished products, organize them, relying on cheap labor, assembly, finished goods, which are then sent for export. Therefore, some economists argue that such (in fact extraterritorial zone) is not correct to call the free and special zones. For such SEZ most characteristic specialization in the electronics industry. At its plants typically employ up to 3 / 5 of the workforce FTE. It is dominated by businesses that do not require large expenditures and to target products of the mass market (computers, communications equipment, electronic watches and games, etc.). In second place for investment and the number of r anyatyh – clothing and textiles, sports equipment, etc.

Most export processing zones in developing countries overseas in Asia, especially the newly industrialized. Total in the mid 90-ies there were about a hundred. As examples of the most effective and proven usually lead FTE Republic of Korea (Masan), Fr. Taiwan (Kaohsiung), Malaysia (Penang), Philippines (Baguio) Singapore (Jurong). Such zones are also in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand, Syria, Jordan. In export processing zones in developing countries of Asia meet and SEZ other types. At the international airports in Singapore and Dubai (UAE) are the world's largest centers, duty-free shops at the "duty free".

But the greatest extent of the creation of special economic zones adopted in China. In a country where still a planned economy, they serve as a kind of pilot market polygons. Formation of SEZ in China began in the late 70's and then passed in its development stages. Now, five special economic zones (Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen and about. Hainan) accounts for a significant portion of all foreign investment in the economy. In addition, another 80-s 14 coastal cities in China have received the status of open. And in the 90's was a free economic area of Pudong (Shanghai), which the Chinese government has a key role in increasing the openness of the economy.

Latin America the number of free economic zones is only slightly inferior to foreign Asia. Initially, this region was largely free trade area (at ports and border crossings), but then began to dominate the export-production zones. Much development also received various kinds of offshore centers. Usually some Latin American countries have a relatively small number of SEZs, which are purposefully created by governments of these countries and have an explicit specialization. An example of a very large and complex area can serve as a free economic zone "Manaus in the Brazilian Amazon, which occupies an area of 3,600,000 km2! And in Mexico, by contrast, created a small FEZ actually based on individual enterprises, so their number is very large. Different types of SEZ also operate in Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, in the small countries of Central America and the Caribbean Islands.

In Africa, free economic zones have so far less common – largely due to lack of funds and poor infrastructure. There is also dominated export-manufacturing zone, among which are the most important area for about. Mauritius, Tunisia and Egypt.

Not all attempts to establish free economic zones in developing countries have been successful. Influenced primarily political instability (leads to armed conflict), as well as a number of economic and administrative factors, some of SEZ set up in my time in Liberia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Guatemala, virtually ceased to function.

In countries with economies in transition, free economic zones have also been some development. Of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe first in 60-ies they began to create Yugoslavia and Hungary. They then appeared in other countries. In a centrally planned economy, these SEZ treated as elements of a market economy capable of attracting foreign investment. Once the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the 90 years passed k market economy, the importance of SEZ have further increased. Among them are dominated by export-manufacturing zone, but there are also other types of SEZ, for example, with the main objective to increase employment in agro-economically depressed areas. In Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria SEZ are created on a national basis, in Poland – on the stock, and in Hungary also in the mixed.

In Russia the free economic zones were created in the late 80's, and to the mid-90's approved SEZ was already half a dozen. Among them are more specialized areas of different types (with a predominance of free trade zones), and complex, the larger the territory. However, not all SEZ Russia have stood the test of time, and government policy towards them was inconsistent. Examples of the most successful large, complex zones may be a free economic zone "Nakhodka" in the Primorsky Krai and SEZ "Yantar in Kaliningrad region. VP Maksakovsky