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Free and Special Economic Zones – a condition investment processes

Special Economic Zone (SEZ) can be defined as part of the country's economic complex in the area, dedicated to the general economic context as a priority, providing distribution and production of the social product to achieve certain specific objectives in the socio-economic development.

By definition, the International Development Association of Free Economic Zones (MARSEZ), established in 1990, the SEZ is a special territorial and economic education. SEZs are generally open to financial and economic activities in any country conducive to economic, scientific, technical, environmental and social development, specially created through additional delegation of federal and municipal authorities in the country's rights and powers with fixed and respect the boundaries, with its own zonal laws , budget, tax system, government.

The purpose of the integration with the world economy, and sub-goals – increasing exports, import of capital, attracting advanced high-tech training. In this zone are prerequisites for the technical infrastructure of the susceptibility with imported equipment and new forms of management and supply chain activities.

In the SEZ to achieve the goals should be to develop specific industries, increasing the economic potential of the region and throughout the country as a whole. This SEZ is created for the sake of providing benefits to investors zones, including foreign.

SEZ as a kind of economic entities, require the formulation of guidelines, expressing regularity or order in which they use to achieve profitability and efficiency as the region as a whole and its individual actors.

To organize the effective functioning of the zone with a special economic regime should be guided by the following principles, worked out by the world practice:

· Intensification of entrepreneurial activity;

· Profitability business investment activity;

Competitiveness of business compared with those of the other territory through the use of new forms and methods of organization;

· Goals in both the short and long term;

· Unity of management and business initiatives in a compromise the interests of economic entities and SEZs (special economic zone compliance management structure and economic conditions);

· Of legislation, regulations and security measures, as well as credit terms, freight, customs services, securities operations. International experience (Japan, USA, Europe, Asia) shows that the functioning of SEZs influenced by the following factors:

– Political stability;

– Investment guarantees;

– The quality of infrastructure;

– Qualification of the workforce;

– Simplification of administrative structures; world experience to create and normal functioning of the SEZ, shows that:

· For normal arrangement of a square. km eksportoproizvodyaschey zone require investment of the order of 40-45 million dollars. USA;

· For normal arrangement of customs-trade zone requires investment of 10-15 million dollars. USA. It is for this reason, most of the SEZ is limited outside the enterprise, several production facilities, ports, or small-area cities. Even a brief listing of the benefits of SEZ can say that it can organically combine many elements of world practice:

· Free port, (for example, Hamburg);

• Special zones (for example, China, Hungary, Bulgaria);

· Production areas (for instance the U.S., UK, France);

· Free trade (for example, China);

· Commercial and recreational, and scientific and technological areas (for example, Singapore and Thailand);

· Bank (for example, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Possibility of introducing a business in the scientific and technological zone (NPOV) or science park, than are techno, to identify the prerequisites, namely, the presence of a large number of innovative ideas, access to sources of venture capital. The successful operation of Technopolis need to provide infrastructure and attractive living and recreation. Originally developed spontaneously, as a consequence of a successful combination of factors: geographic, economic, social, etc. Already in 1973 in the U.S., there were 84 NTRP where it employs 142 thousand workers and 45 thousand scientists. Such firms as Intel and Microsoft have been developed in terms of NPOV. In the near future in the United States planned to create 1000 NPOV with investments of 3 billion dollars. And the number of new jobs – 100,000.

Cambridge NTRP formed on the basis of advances in science and practice with active participation of the university, which offers special training courses and its staff participate in joint research projects, and production base of NPOV is also used in scientific research. Profile Science Park was formed on the basis of the spectrum of research areas of the University and includes a small (about 30 people.) Innovative firms.

Experience NPOV in Japan, created in the 80 years under the program "Technopolis" allowed in some underdeveloped regions, to establish in small towns and adjoining areas of NPOV, which include high-tech enterprises, research institutions, universities, preparing for the Technopolis scientific and engineering expertise and modern infrastructure. Intensification of research with the active introduction into the real economy through the revitalization of the local universities was implemented with the participation of state and municipal agencies and major private capital through the mechanism of accelerated depreciation (in the 1 st year 30% of the cost of equipment and 15% of the value of buildings) and other economic benefits managed to interest investors.

Similar zones have been established in Taiwan and Singapore who have made a significant contribution to the program of national economic development (in the new high-tech industries, information technology, advanced communications and communications). Solved as programs to increase self-reliance in food products.

Given that the SEZ – an integral part of the national economy, the spontaneity, the lack of elaboration of phasing in the formation of SEZs could lead to a "credit attack" not only within but also across the economy, that is, for example, the monetary cost recovery does not arrive in time for new investments that will increase the national debt. Thus, the issue of SEZ creation requires careful consideration and subsequent implementation of its horizontal and vertical levels.

Union of Small and Medium Enterprises of the Azerbaijan Republic, Azerbaijan Republic gor.Baku 370029, ul.Garibova, 10, tel. / fax (994 12) 676452, 672295, 677187


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Free and Special Economic Zones – a condition investment processes

Free and Special Economic Zones – a condition investment processes

Possibility of introducing a business in the scientific and technological zone (NPOV) or science park, than are techno, to identify the prerequisites, namely, the presence of a large number of innovative ideas, access to sources of venture capital. For the successful functioning of Technopolis need to provide good infrastructure and attractive living and recreation. Originally developed spontaneously, as a consequence of a successful combination of factors: geographic, economic, social, etc. Already in 1973 in the U.S., there were 84 NTRP where it employs 142 thousand workers and 45 thousand scientists. Such firms as Intel and Microsoft have been developed in terms of NPOV. In the near future in the United States planned to create 1000 NPOV with investments of 3 billion dollars. And the number of new jobs – 100,000.

Cambridge NTRP formed on the basis of advances in science and practice with active participation of the university, which offers special training courses and its staff participate in joint research projects, and production base of NPOV is also used in scientific research. Profile Science Park was formed on the basis of the spectrum of research areas of the University and includes a small (about 30 people.) Innovative firms.

Experience NPOV in Japan, created in the 80 years under the program “Technopolis” allowed in some underdeveloped regions, to establish in small towns and adjoining areas of NPOV, which include high-tech enterprises, research institutions, universities, preparing for the Technopolis scientific and engineering expertise and modern infrastructure. Intensification of research with the active introduction into the real economy through the revitalization of the local universities was implemented with the participation of state and municipal agencies and major private capital through the mechanism of accelerated depreciation (in the 1 st year 30% of the cost of equipment and 15% of the value of buildings) and other economic benefits managed to interest investors.

Similar zones have been established in Taiwan and Singapore who have made a significant contribution to the program of national economic development (in the new high-tech industries, information technology, advanced communications and communications). Solved as programs to increase self-reliance in food products.

Given that the special economic zone – an integral part of the national economy, the spontaneity, the lack of elaboration of a milestone in the formation of SEZs may cause “credit attack” not only within but also across the economy, ie, for example, the monetary cost recovery does not arrive in time for new investments that will increase the national debt. Thus, the issue of SEZ creation requires careful consideration and subsequent implementation of its horizontal and vertical levels.

Union of Small and Medium Enterprises of the Azerbaijan Republic, Azerbaijan Republic gor.Baku 370029, ul.Garibova, 10, tel. / fax (994 12) 676452, 672295, 677187


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